Standard 3: Resources

Several different types of resources are included in this section of the module to support the development of knowledge and practices in collaboration and teaming.

Websites - Provide information and resources related to the Standard and Components.


American Occupational Therapy Association

American Physical Therapy Association

American Speech and Hearing Association

Division for Early Childhood Learning Decks

Division for Early Childhood Recommended Practices

Council for Exceptional Children High Leverage Practices

ECTA Practice Improvement Tools: Topic – Teaming and Collaboration

ECTA Service Delivery Approaches and Models

Head Start Early Childhood Learning and Knowledge Center

National Association of School Psychologists

Learning Modules - The modules related to the Standard can be used in their entirety or by selecting sections or content that support the objectives of an IHE course or PD content. The evidence-based practices for adult learners will vary based on the module selected.

Glossary - Key terms used in Standards and Components. The references and resources in addition to being the source(s) for that definition may also provide additional background information specific to the use of that term in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education.


Term Definition Reference/Resource
Culturally and linguistically responsive and affirming Approaches that empower individuals intellectually, socially, emotionally, and politically by using cultural and historical referents to convey knowledge, to impart skills, and to change attitudes.


Such approaches involve consciously creating social interactions to help individuals meet the criteria of academic success, cultural competence, and critical consciousness and include creating individual-centered learning environments that affirm

cultural identities; foster positive learning outcomes; develop children’s abilities to connect across lines of difference; elevate historically marginalized voices; empower children as agents of social change; and contribute to individual child engagement, learning, growth, and achievement through the cultivation of critical thinking.  These approaches challenge norms (e.g., expectations regarding language, behavior, social interactions) in order to be responsive to marginalized children and families and work towards greater equity.

DEC RP Glossary:


Barrera, I., Corso, R., & Macpherson, D. (2003). Skilled dialogue: Strategies for responding to cultural diversity in early childhood. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Ladson-Billings, G. (2014). Culturally relevant pedagogy 2.0: Aka the remix. Harvard Educational Review, 84(1), 74-84.

Evidence-based practice Used as a Noun - Practices that are based on the best available empirical research that documents the practice’s efficacy with young children and families; the wisdom and knowledge of the field; and the core guiding values, beliefs, and theoretical approaches of EI/ECSE.


Used as a Verb – The process for selecting and implementing practices that weigh research evidence; family and professional wisdom and values; and the individual characteristics, strengths, and needs of a child.

Odom, S. L., & Wolery, M. (2003). A unified theory of practice in early intervention/early childhood special education: Evidence-based practices. The Journal of Special Education, 37(3), 164173.

Buysse, V., Wesley, P. W., Snyder, P., & Winton, P. (2006). Evidence-based practice: What does it really mean for the early childhood field? Young Exceptional Children, 9(4), 2-11.

Family A child’s consistent (i.e., primary) caregiver(s) who have responsibility for the child’s well-being and development and who are partners in the child’s education and intervention. This may include a variety of individuals, including, but not limited to, the child’s biological, adoptive, or foster parent(s), legal guardians, siblings, grandparents, other relatives, and others within the child’s primary support network. Mapp, K., & Kuttner, P. J. (2013). Partners in education: A dual capacity-building framework for family-school partnerships. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Lab.

Turnbull, A. P., Turnbull, R., Erwin, E. J., Soodak, L. C., & Shogren, K. A. (2015). Families, professionals, and exceptionality: Positive outcomes through partnerships and trust. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Inclusive environments Settings that facilitate inclusion.  For infants and toddlers, natural environments represent a broad array of contexts and activities that are typically available to children without disabilities and their families.  For children 3 through 8 years, inclusive environments may include a variety of organizational contexts (e.g., public school, private community-based centers) and ECSE service delivery models (e.g., co-teaching/team teaching, itinerant/consultant).


Division for Early Childhood/ National Association for the Education of Young Children. (2009). Early childhood inclusion: A joint position statement of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) and the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). Retrieved from


Love, H. R., & Horn, E. (2019). Definition, Context, Quality: Current Issues in Research Examining High-Quality Inclusive Education. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education. Retrieved from

US Department of Health and Human Services & US Department of Education (2015). Policy statement on inclusion of children with disabilities in early childhood programs. Retrieved from

Instruction A set of practices that are evidence-based, intentional, systematic, and support development and learning for all young children across developmental and content domains. Instruction includes the intentional structuring of children’s environments and learning experiences as well as methods used to teach a curriculum. Instruction is used across natural environments and inclusive settings in collaboration with families and other professionals. Wolery, M. (2012). Voices from the field. Young Exceptional Children, 15(4), 41-44.

Boat, M., Dinnebeil, L., & Bae, Y. (2010). Individualizing instruction in preschool classrooms. Dimensions of Early Childhood, 38 (1), 4-10.

Division for Early Childhood. (2015). DEC recommended practices glossary. Retrieved from

Intervention A set of strategies that are evidence-based, individualized, and support specific individualized developmental and learning objectives across natural environments and inclusive settings in collaboration with families and other professionals. Wolery, M. (2004). Using assessment information to plan intervention programs. In M. McLean, M., Wolery, & D. B. Bailey, Jr. (Eds.), Assessing infants and preschoolers with special needs (pp. 517-544). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Division for Early Childhood. (2015). DEC recommended practices glossary. Retrieved from https://divisionearlychildhood.

Natural Environment Home and community settings (e.g., childcare programs, libraries, parks) in which children spend time participating in activities and routines regardless of their ability or needs, and that are typically available to children without disabilities. DEC/NAEYC. (2009). Early childhood inclusion: A joint position statement of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) and the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC).

Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina, FPG Child Development Institute.

Strength-based Approaches that concentrate on the inherent strengths of children and their families. It is a philosophy and a way of viewing children and their families as resourceful, resilient, and self-determined. Green, B. L., McAllister, C. L., & Tarte, J. M. (2004). The strengths-based practices inventory: A tool for measuring strengths-based service delivery in early childhood and family support programs. Families in Society, 85(3), 326-334.

References – Supporting literature and resources which may be assigned as readings for pre-service and in-service learners and most align with the introduction of evidence-based practice for adult learners.


Akamoglu, Y., & Dinnebeil, L. (2015). Coaching parents to use naturalistic language and communication strategies. Young Exceptional Children, 20(1), 41-50.

An, M., Palisano, R. J., Dunst, C. J., Chiarello, L. A., Yi, C., & Gracely, E. J. (2015). Strategies to promote family–professional collaboration: Two case reports. Disability and Rehabilitation, 38(18), 1844-1858. doi:10.3109/09638288.2015.1107763

Artman-Meeker, K., Fettig, A., Barton, E. E., Penney, A., & Zeng, S. (2015). Applying an Evidence-Based Framework to the Early Childhood Coaching Literature. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 35(3), 183-196.

Biggs, E. E., Gilson, C. B., & Carter, E. W. (2016). Accomplishing more together: Influences to the quality of professional relationships between special educators and paraprofessionals. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 41(4), 256-272.

Biggs, E. E., Gilson, C. B., & Carter, E. W. (2019). “Developing That Balance”: Preparing and Supporting Special Education Teachers to Work with Paraprofessionals. Teacher Education and Special Education, 42(2), 117-131.

Brown, T. L., Gatmaitan, M., & Harjusola-Webb, S. M. (2014). Using performance feedback to support paraprofessionals in inclusive preschool classrooms. Young Exceptional Children, 17(2), 21-31.

Brown, T. S. & Stanton-Chapman, T. L. (2014). Experiences of paraprofessionals in U.S. preschool special education and general education classrooms. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 17(1), 18–30.

Chopra, R. V. & Giangreco, M. F. (2019). Effective utilization of teacher assistants in inclusive classrooms. In M. J. Schuelka, C. Johnstone, G. Thomas, & A. Artiles (Eds.), Handbook of inclusion and diversity in education (pp. 193–207). SAGE

Division for Early Childhood (2014).  DEC recommended practices in early intervention/early childhood special education in 2014.  Retrieved from

Douglas, S. N., Chapin, S. E., & Nolan, J. F. (2016). Special education teachers’ experiences supporting and supervising paraeducators: Implications for special and general education settings. Teacher Education and Special Education, 39(1), 60-74.

Friend, M., & Barron, T. (2019). Collaborating with colleagues to increase student success. In J. McLeskey, L. Maheady, B. Billingsley, M. Brownell, & T.J. Lewis (Eds.), High leverage practices for inclusive classrooms (pp. 3-14). New York, NY: Routledge.

Hallam, P. R., Smith, H. R., Hite, J. M., Hite, S. J., & Wilcox, B. R. (2015). Trust and collaboration in PLC teams: Teacher relationships, principal support, and collaborative benefits. NASSP Bulletin, 99, 193–216.  doi:10.1177/0192636515602330

Kemp, C. (2003).  Investigating the transition of young children with intellectual disabilities to mainstream classes:  An Australian perspective.  International Journal of Disability, Development, and Education, 50, 393-411.

Kemp, P. & Turnbull, A. (2014). Coaching with parents in early intervention: An interdisciplinary research synthesis. Infants & Young Children, 27(4), 305-324.

Kohler, P.D., Gothberg, J.E., Fowler, C., & Coyle, J. (2016).  Taxonomy for transition Programming 2.0:  A model for planning, organizing, and evaluating transition education, services, and programs.  Western Michigan University.

Raver, S. A., & Childress, D. C. (2015). Collaboration and teamwork with families and professionals. In S. A. Raver & D. C. Childress (Eds.), Family-centered early intervention: Supporting infants and toddlers in natural environments. Brookes.

Ronfeldt, M., Farmer. S., McQueen, K., & Grissom, J.A.  (2015).  Teacher collaboration in instructional teams and student achievement.  American Educational Research Journal, 52, 475-514.

Rous, B.S., McLaughlin, T.W., & Sandall, S.R.  (2020).  Transition:  Supporting changes in services and settings (DEC recommended practices monograph series No. 8). Division for Early Childhood.

Solis, M., Vaughn, S., Swanson, E., & McCulley, L. (2012).  Collaborative models of instruction:  The empirical foundations of inclusion and co-teaching.  Psychology in the Schools, 49, 498-510.

Summers, J. A., Hoffman, L., Marquis, J., Turnbull, A., Poston, D., & Nelson, L. L. (2015).

Measuring the quality of family-professional partnerships in special education services. Exceptional Children, 72, 165-183. doi:10.1177/001440290507200104

Tremblay, P. (2013).  Comparative outcomes of two instructional models for students with Learning disabilities:  Inclusion with co-teaching and solo-taught special education. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 13, 251-258.

U.S. Department of Education (2018b). ED Facts submission system: FS112 - Special education paraprofessionals file specifications. Retrieved from 

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Activity Bank

*New* Tip sheet: Enhancing Family-Provider Partnerships During COVID-19  Enhancing Family-Provider Partnerships
Tips for Providers: Providing & Coordinating EI Remotely Tips for Providers: What to say to Families
Tips for Providers: Providing & Coordinating EI Remotely (What will it look like?) Tips for Providers: What will a Remote Visit Look Like?
Tips for Families: Receiving Remote EI Services Tips for Families Flyer .pdf What is Remote EI

Consejos para Familias .pdf What is Remote EI? (Spanish)

Tips for Families: How to prepare for a Remote EI Visit Tips for Families: .pdf Preparing for the Visit

TConsejos para Familias: .pdf Preparing for the Visit (Spanish)

ECPC Course Enhancement Modules E-Learning Lessons, Practice Guides & Resources 
CONNECT Modules CONNECT Modules and Courses
Virginia Early Intervention Professional Development Center Framework for reflective questioning / The Coaching Quick Reference Guide - .pdf
Virginia Early Intervention Professional Development Center Tools of Trade
OCALI (Ohio Center for Autism and Low Incidence Disabilities) (note: you must login but it is free) Suite of Resources for Early Childhood Professionals
Public Consulting Group Use of telehealth in early intervention (IDEA Part C)
Protecting Student Privacy

U.S. Department of Education

Student Privacy 101

FERPA and the Coronavirus Disease 2019

FERPA and Virtual Learning

Edelman, L. (2020). Planning for the Use of Video Conferencing for Early Intervention Home Visits during the COVID-19 Pandemic Planning for the Use of Video Conferencing for Early Intervention Home Visits during the COVID-19 Pandemic
CEC Hosted Webinar with Resources Teaching Special Education Online During COVID-19
National Center for Hearing Assessment & Management Utah State University Welcome to the Tele-Intervention Learning Courses
Lisa Dieker & Rebecca Hines UCF - Podcasts for Part B/619 Coordinators Series of Podcasts: teaching online, inclusion, etc.
National Center for Pyramid Model Innovations - May Newsletter Pyramid in the Time of COVID-19