Standard 4: Resources

Several different types of resources are included in this section of the module to support the development of knowledge and practices in assessment processes.  These include Websites, Learning Modules, Glossary, and References.

Websites - Provide information and resources related to the Standard and Components.

Learning Modules - The modules related to the Standard can be used in their entirety or by selecting sections or content that support the objectives of an IHE course or PD content. The evidence-based practices for adult learners will vary based on the module selected.

Glossary - Key terms used in Standards and Components. The references and resources in addition to being the source(s) for that definition may also provide additional background information specific to the use of that term in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education.



Term Definition Reference/Resource
Authentic assessment “… the systematic recording of developmental observations over time about the naturally occurring behaviors and functional competencies of young children in daily routines by familiar and knowledgeable caregivers in the child’s life” (p. 29). Bagnato, S. J., & Yeh-Ho, H. (2006). High-stakes testing with preschool children: Violation of professional standards for evidence-based practice in early childhood intervention. International Journal of Educational Policy, 3(1), 2343.
Child Find A continuous process that includes public awareness activities, screening, and evaluation to locate, identify and evaluate children who are eligible to receive EI/ECSE services.

IDEA requires active identification, evaluation, and eligibility determination for both Part C (0-3) and Part B of the law. Part B must ensure all children birth to age 21 is identified. The regulation draws specific attention to children with disabilities in traditionally marginalized groups. Part C requires a “comprehensive child find system”. Part C is required to be consistent with Part B but also to include in its child find efforts all other major primary referral sources (i.e. hospitals, physicians, parents, social services, LEA, schools). Public awareness is a part of the Part C child find procedures.


20 U.S.C. 1412(a)(3);

Wrightslaw: Special Education Law, pages 72, 206-207

Content domains Defined domains of knowledge and skills consisting of the body of knowledge and information upon which intervention and instruction are based and that children are expected to learn in academic programs and programs promoting academic readiness. Common content areas include language arts, mathematics, science, art, music, and social studies.

Culturally and linguistically responsive and affirming Approaches that empower individuals intellectually, socially, emotionally, and politically by using cultural and historical referents to convey knowledge, to impart skills, and to change attitudes.

Such approaches involve consciously creating social interactions to help individuals meet the criteria of academic success, cultural competence, and critical consciousness and include creating individual-centered learning environments that affirm

cultural identities; foster positive learning outcomes; develop children’s abilities to connect across lines of difference; elevate historically marginalized voices; empower children as agents of social change; and contribute to individual child engagement, learning, growth, and achievement through the cultivation of critical thinking.  These approaches challenge norms (e.g., expectations regarding language, behavior, social interactions) in order to be responsive to marginalized children and families and work towards greater equity.

DEC RP Glossary

Barrera, I., Corso, R., & Macpherson, D. (2003). Skilled dialogue: Strategies for

responding to cultural diversity in early childhood. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Ladson-Billings, G. (2014). Culturally relevant pedagogy 2.0: Aka the remix. Harvard Educational Review, 84(1), 74-84.

Developmental domains Specific areas of human growth and development such as cognition, social-emotional, motor/physical, communication, play, and adaptive behavior.

Eligibility: National Center for Hearing Assessment and Management

Evidence-based practice Used as a Noun - Practices that are based on the best available empirical research that documents the practice’s efficacy with young children and families; the wisdom and knowledge of the field; and the core guiding values, beliefs, and theoretical approaches of EI/ECSE.

Used as a Verb – The process for selecting and implementing practices that weigh research evidence; family and professional wisdom and values; and the individual characteristics, strengths, and needs of a child.

Odom, S. L., & Wolery, M. (2003). A unified theory of practice in early intervention/early childhood special education: Evidence-based practices. The Journal of Special Education, 37(3), 164173.

Buysse, V., Wesley, P. W., Snyder, P., & Winton, P. (2006). Evidence-based practice: What does it really mean for the early childhood field? Young Exceptional Children, 9(4), 2-11.

Family A child’s consistent (i.e., primary) caregiver(s) who have responsibility for the child’s well-being and development and who are partners in the child’s education and intervention. This may include a variety of individuals, including, but not limited to, the child’s biological, adoptive, or foster parent(s), legal guardians, siblings, grandparents, other relatives, and others within the child’s primary support network. Mapp, K., & Kuttner, P. J. (2013). Partners in education: A dual capacity-building framework for family-school partnerships. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Lab.

Turnbull, A. P., Turnbull, R., Erwin, E. J., Soodak, L. C., & Shogren, K. A. (2015). Families, professionals, and exceptionality: Positive outcomes through partnerships and trust. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Functional behavior assessment Collection of data to investigate the environmental variables maintaining and/or contributing to challenging behavior. A functional assessment includes systematically identifying the challenging behavior, events that precede such behavior (antecedents), and events that maintain such behavior (consequences) with results used to identify, plan, implement, and support others to implement individual behavior support plans. Dunlap, G., & Fox, L. (2011). Function-based interventions for children with challenging behavior. Journal of Early Intervention, 33(4), 333-343.
Informed clinical opinion Integration of the results of evaluations and direct observations in various settings, professional judgment based on experience and expertise, and family input to make recommendations for initial and continuing eligibility for EI/ECSE services and to plan services for those children whose developmental status and EI/ECSE needs may be difficult to assess with formal measures. Informed clinical opinion
Instruction A set of practices that are evidence-based, intentional, systematic, and support development and learning for all young children across developmental and content domains. Instruction includes the intentional structuring of children’s environments and learning experiences as well as methods used to teach a curriculum. Instruction is used across natural environments and inclusive settings in collaboration with families and other professionals. Wolery, M. (2012). Voices from the field. Young Exceptional Children, 15(4), 41-44.

Boat, M., Dinnebeil, L., & Bae, Y. (2010). Individualizing instruction in preschool classrooms. Dimensions of Early Childhood, 38 (1), 4-10.

DEC RP Glossary

Intervention A set of strategies that are evidence-based, individualized, and support specific individualized developmental and learning objectives across natural environments and inclusive settings in collaboration with families and other professionals. Wolery, M. (2004). Using assessment information to plan intervention programs. In M. McLean, M., Wolery, & D. B. Bailey, Jr. (Eds.), Assessing infants and preschoolers with special needs (pp. 517-544). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Strength-based Approaches that concentrate on the inherent strengths of children and their families. It is a philosophy and a way of viewing children and their families as resourceful, resilient, and self-determined. Green, B. L., McAllister, C. L., & Tarte, J. M. (2004). The strengths-based practices inventory: A tool for measuring strengths-based service delivery in early childhood and family support programs. Families in Society, 85(3), 326-334.

ReferencesSupporting literature and resources which may be assigned as readings for pre-service and in-service learners and most align with the introduction of evidence-based practice for adult learners.


Ackerman, D.J., & Coley, R.J. (2012).  State pre-K assessment policies:  Issues and status.  Policy information report.  Educational Testing Service

Adrihan, S.A., Winchell, B.N., & Greene, S.J., Transforming early intervention screening, evaluation, assessment, and collaboration practices: Eligibility for children impacted by trauma. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 38(3), 174-184.

Barnes, N., Fives, H., & Dacey, C.M. (2017). U.S. teachers’ conceptions of the purposes of assessment.  Teaching and Teacher Education, 65, 107-116.

Brown, C.P. (2013). Reforming preschool to ready children for academic achievement: A case study of the impact of pre-K reform on the issue of school readiness.  Early Education and Development, 24(4), 554-573.

Cannella-Malone, H. I., Sabielny, L. M., Jimenez, E. D., & Miller, M. M. (2013). Pick one! Conducting preference assessments with students with significant disabilities. Teaching Exceptional Children, 45(6), 16-23.

Chang, Y., Shire, S. Y., Shih, W., Gelfand, C. & Kasari, C. (2016). Preschool deployment of evidence-based social communication intervention: JASPER in the classroom. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. DOI10.1007/s10803-016-2752-2

DeLuca, C., Valiquette, A., Coombs, A., LaPointe-McEwan, D., & Luhanga, U. (2018).  Teachers’ approaches to classroom assessment: A large scale survey.  Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy, and Practice, 25(4), 355-375.

Hosp, M.K., Hosp, J.L., & Howell, K.W. (2016). The ABCs of CBM: A practical guide to curriculum-based measurement (2nd ed.). Guilford Press.

Jablon, J. (2010, December). Taking it all in: Observation in the classroom. Teaching Young Children, 4(2), 2427.

Jablon, J. R., A.L. Dombro, & M.L. Dichtelmiller. 2007 (2d ed.) The Power of Observation. Washington, DC: Teaching Strategies.

Kim, K. (2016). Teaching to the data collection? (Un)intended consequences of the online child assessment system, “Teaching Strategies GOLD.” Global Studies of Childhood, 6(1), 98-112.  

Li, Z., Gooden, C., & Toland, M.D. (2019). Reliability and validity evidence for the Hawaii Early Learning Profile, Birth– 3 Years. Journal of Early Intervention, 41(1), 62-83.

Linder, Toni W, Transdisciplinary Play-Based Assessment: A Functional Approach to Working with Young Children. (2nd Edition). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Bagnato, S., Goins, D., Pretti-Frontczak, K., & Neisworth, J. (2014). Authentic Assessment as “Best Practice” for Early Childhood Intervention: National Consumer Social Validity Research, Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 1-12.

Cornelius, K. E. (2014). Formative assessment made easy: Templates for collecting daily data in inclusive classrooms. Teaching Exceptional Children, 47(2), 112-118.

Glascoe, F. & Marks, K. (2011). Detecting children with developmental-behavioral problems: The value of collaborating with parents. Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 53(2), 258-279.

McConnell, S. R., & Rahn, N. L. (2016). Assessment in Early Childhood Special Education. In Handbook of Early Childhood Special Education (pp. 89-106). Springer International Publishing.

Pierucci, J., Barber, A., Gilpin, a., Crisler, M., Klinger L. (2015). Play assessments and developmental skills in young children with autism spectrum disorders. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 30(1), 35-43.

Pooch, A., Natale, R., & Hidalgo, T. (2019). Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional as a teacher-report measure. Journal of Early Intervention, 41(1), 3-12.  Focus on reliability and validity

Pool, J.L., & Hampshire, P. (2020).  Planning for the authentic assessment using unstructured and structured observation in the preschool classroom.  Young Exceptional Children. 23(3), 143-156

Pyle, A., & DeLuca, C. (2013). Assessment in the kindergarten classroom: An empirical study of teachers’ assessment approaches. Early Childhood Education Journal, 41(5), 373-380.

Schacter, R.E., Strang, T.M., & Piasta, S.B. (2017). Teachers’ experiences with a state-mandated kindergarten readiness assessment.  Early Years: An International Journal of Research and Development, 1-17.

Shire, S. Y., Shih, W., Chang, Y. C., & Kasari, C. (2018). Short Play and Communication Evaluation: Teachers’ assessment of core social communication and play skills with young children with autism. Autism, 22(3), 299-310.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2014, March).  Birth to Five:  Watch me thrive! A compendium of screening measures for young children.  BIRTH TO 5: WATCH ME THRIVE! (

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2019). School readiness. Retrieved from

Williams, M. E., Zamora, I., Akinsilo, O., Chen, A. H., & Poulsen, M. K. (2018). Broad developmental screening misses young children with social-emotional needs. Clinical Pediatrics, 57(7), 844-849.

Zweig, J., Irwin, C.W., Kook, J., & Cox, J. (2015, April).  Data collection and use in early childhood education programs:  Evidence from the Northeast region (REL 2015-084).  Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences National Center for Education Evaluation and

Select a Category:


ECPC Course Enhancement Modules E-Learning Lessons, Practice Guides & Resources 
CONNECT Modules CONNECT Modules and Courses
Faculty Forum - The Chronicle of Higher Education Archived Zoom Call: Faculty Resilience and the COVID-19 - Week 2
Frank Porter Graham Toolkit of Resources TOOLKIT: resources for early childhood faculty and instructors
Association of College and University Educators Online teaching toolkit
The Chronicle of Higher Education How to be a better online teacher advice guide
SCRIPT-NC Shifting to Online Instruction and Faculty Webinars
Openstax Open access to high quality textbooks online -free
CEEDAR Center Virtual Toolkit: Easing Faculty Transition to Online Instruction​
FREE RESOURCE: Poll Everywhere for Higher Ed. Faculty Create unlimited questions for up to 40 students
CEC Webinar and Resources Teaching Special Education Online During COVID-19
IRIS Center Planning for Distance Learning: Resources: Modules, Case Study Units, Activities
The Chronicle of Higher Education, Michelle D. Miller
Going Online in a Hurry: What to Do and Where to Start
The Chronicle of Higher Education, Kevin Gannon 4 Lessons from Moving a Face-to-Face Course Online
The Chronicle of Higher Education, Heather R. Taft, March 17, 2020 How to Quickly (and Safely) Move a Lab Course Online
The Chronicle of Higher Education Coping With Coronavirus: How Faculty Members Can Support Students in Traumatic Times
The Chronicle of Higher Education, Flower Darby How to Be a Better Online Teacher (Advice Guide)
Ohio Developmental Disabilities Council Video Series: Use of Technology with Evidence Based Early Intervention
National Center on Deaf Blindness
Open Hands, Open Access video learning modules
Coursera Child Development Courses


Activity Bank

*New* Tip sheet: Enhancing Family-Provider Partnerships During COVID-19  Enhancing Family-Provider Partnerships
Tips for Providers: Providing & Coordinating EI Remotely Tips for Providers: What to say to Families
Tips for Providers: Providing & Coordinating EI Remotely (What will it look like?) Tips for Providers: What will a Remote Visit Look Like?
Tips for Families: Receiving Remote EI Services Tips for Families Flyer .pdf What is Remote EI

Consejos para Familias .pdf What is Remote EI? (Spanish)

Tips for Families: How to prepare for a Remote EI Visit Tips for Families: .pdf Preparing for the Visit

TConsejos para Familias: .pdf Preparing for the Visit (Spanish)

ECPC Course Enhancement Modules E-Learning Lessons, Practice Guides & Resources 
CONNECT Modules CONNECT Modules and Courses
Virginia Early Intervention Professional Development Center Framework for reflective questioning / The Coaching Quick Reference Guide - .pdf
Virginia Early Intervention Professional Development Center Tools of Trade
OCALI (Ohio Center for Autism and Low Incidence Disabilities) (note: you must login but it is free) Suite of Resources for Early Childhood Professionals
Public Consulting Group Use of telehealth in early intervention (IDEA Part C)
Protecting Student Privacy

U.S. Department of Education

Student Privacy 101

FERPA and the Coronavirus Disease 2019

FERPA and Virtual Learning

Edelman, L. (2020). Planning for the Use of Video Conferencing for Early Intervention Home Visits during the COVID-19 Pandemic Planning for the Use of Video Conferencing for Early Intervention Home Visits during the COVID-19 Pandemic
CEC Hosted Webinar with Resources Teaching Special Education Online During COVID-19
National Center for Hearing Assessment & Management Utah State University Welcome to the Tele-Intervention Learning Courses
Lisa Dieker & Rebecca Hines UCF - Podcasts for Part B/619 Coordinators Series of Podcasts: teaching online, inclusion, etc.
National Center for Pyramid Model Innovations - May Newsletter Pyramid in the Time of COVID-19