Standard 2: Resources

Several different types of resources are included in this section of the module to support the development of knowledge and practices in partnering with families.

Websites - Provide information and resources related to the Standard and Components.

Learning Modules - The modules related to the Standard which can be used in their entirety or by selecting sections or content that support the objectives of an IHE course or PD content. The evidence-based practices for adult learners will vary based on the module selected.

Glossary - Key terms used in Standards and Components. The references and resources in addition to being the source(s) for that definition may also provide additional background information specific to the use of that term in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education.  



Term Definition Reference/Resource
Culturally and linguistically responsive and affirming  Approaches that empower individuals intellectually, socially, emotionally, and politically by using cultural and historical referents to convey knowledge, to impart skills, and to change attitudes. 

Such approaches involve consciously creating social interactions to help individuals meet the criteria of academic success, cultural competence, and critical consciousness and include creating individual-centered learning environments that affirm. 

Cultural identities; foster positive learning outcomes; develop children’s abilities to connect across lines of difference; elevate historically marginalized voices; empower children as agents of social change; and contribute to individual child engagement, learning, growth, and achievement through the cultivation of critical thinking.  These approaches challenge norms (e.g., expectations regarding language, behavior, social interactions) in order to be responsive to marginalized children and families and work towards greater equity.

Culturally Responsive-Sustaining Education Framework

DEC RP Glossary 

Barrera, I., Corso, R., & Macpherson, D. (2003). Skilled dialogue: Strategies for responding to cultural diversity in early childhood. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes. 

Ladson-Billings, G. (2014). Culturally relevant pedagogy 2.0: Aka the remix. Harvard Educational Review, 84(1), 74-84.

DEC Recommended 

Practices (RPs)

A set of practices based on the best-available empirical evidence as well as the wisdom and experience of the field and that were developed to guide EI/ECSE professionals and families about the most effective ways to improve the learning outcomes and promote the development of young children, birth through five years of age, who have or are at-risk for developmental delays or disabilities in eight topic areas:
  • Leadership,
  • Assessment,
  • Environment,
  • Family,
  • Instruction,
  • Interaction,
  • Teaming and collaboration, and
  • Transition
Division for Early Childhood. (2014). DEC recommended practices in early intervention/early childhood special education 2014. 


Family  A child’s consistent (i.e., primary) caregiver(s) who have responsibility for the child’s well-being and development and who are partners in the child’s education and intervention. This may include a variety of individuals, including, but not limited to, the child’s biological, adoptive, or foster parent(s), legal guardians, siblings, grandparents, other relatives, and others within the child’s primary support network.  Mapp, K., & Kuttner, P. J. 

(2013). Partners in education: A dual capacity-building framework for family-school partnerships. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Lab.

Turnbull, A. P., Turnbull, R., 

Erwin, E. J., Soodak, L. C., & Shogren, K. A. (2015). Families, professionals, and exceptionality: Positive outcomes through partnerships and trust. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Family capacity building practices Participatory opportunities and experiences afforded to families to strengthen existing parenting knowledge and skills, and promote the development of new parenting abilities that enhance parenting self-efficacy beliefs and practices and are guided by families’ individual strengths and needs; priorities, goals and preferences; and cultural and linguistic characteristics. Division for Early Childhood. (2014). DEC recommended practices in early intervention/early childhood special education 2014. Retrieved from 
Strength-based Approaches that concentrate on the inherent strengths of children and their families. It is a philosophy and a way of viewing children and their families as resourceful, resilient and self-determined. Green, B. L., McAllister, C. L., & Tarte, J. M. (2004). The strengths-based practices inventory: A tool for measuring strengths-based service delivery in early childhood and family support programs. Families in Society, 85(3), 326-334.

References – Supporting literature and resources which may be assigned as readings for pre-service and in-service learners and most align with the introduction of evidence-based practice for adult learners.


Acar, S., & Blasco, P.M. (2018). Guidelines for collaborating with interpreters in early intervention/early childhood special education. Young Exceptional  Children, (21)3, 170-184.

Bezdek, J., Summers, J. A., & Turnbull, A. (2010). Professionals’ attitudes on partnering with families of children and youth with disabilities. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 45(3), 356-365.

Brotherson, M. J., Summers, J. A., Naig, L. A., Kyzar, K., Friend, A., Epley, P., . . . Turnbull, A. P. (2010). Partnership patterns: Addressing emotional needs in early intervention. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 30(1), 32-45.

Bruns, D.A., & LaRocco, D.J. (2019). Supporting parents’ confidence to pull up a chair at the Intervention/early childhood special education table.  Young Exceptional Children, 22(1), 38-49.

Corr, C., Spence, C., Miller, D., Marshall, A.A., & Santos, R.M. (2018). Beyond “hoping for the best”: Home visits in impoverished urban areas. Young Exceptional Children, 21(3), 111-120.

Davis, J.M., & Hanline, M.F. (2018). Young children with same sex parents: Supporting families and children in early childhood programs.  Young Exceptional Children, (21)3, 127-141.

Division for Early Childhood of the Council for Exceptional Children. (2014). DEC recommended practices in early intervention/early childhood special education 2014.

Division for Early Childhood of the Council for Exceptional Children. (2014). DEC position statement: The role of special instruction in early intervention.  

Dunst, C. J. (2002). Family-centered practices: Birth through high school. Journal of Special Education, 36(3), 141-149 (metanalyses).

Gatmaitan,M., & Brown, T. (2016). Quality individualized family service plans: Guidelines for practitioners, programs, and families. Young Exceptional Children, 19(2), 14-32.

Hanson, M. J., & Lynch, E. W. (2010). Working with families from diverse backgrounds. In R. A. McWilliam (Ed.), Working with families of young children with special needs (p. 167). Guilford Press.

Hedeen, T., Peter, M., Moses, P., & Engiles, A. (2013). Individualized Education Program (IEP)/Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) facilitation: Practical insights and programmatic considerations. Center for Appropriate Dispute Resolution in Special Education (CADRE).

Hsiao, Y.J., Higgins, K., & Diamond, L. (2018). Parent empowerment: Respecting their voices Teaching Exceptional Children, 51(1), 43-53.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 2004, 20 U.S.C. 1400 et seq. (2004).

McLeskey, J., Barringer, M-D., Billingsley, B., Brownell, M., Jackson, D., Kennedy, M., Lewis, T., Maheady, L., Rodriquez, J., Scheeler, M. C., Winn, J., & Ziegler, D. (2017).  High-leverage practices in special education. Council for Exceptional Children & CEEDAR Center.

Moeller, M. P., Carr, G., Seaver, L., Stredler-Brown, A., & Holzinger, D. (2013). Best practices in family-centered early intervention for children who are deaf or hard of hearing: An international consensus statement. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 18(4), 429-445.

Mueller, T. G., Massafra, A., Robinson, J., & Peterson, L. (2019). Simulated individualized education program meetings: Valuable pedagogy within a preservice special educator program. Teacher Education and Special Education, 42(3), 209-226.

Resch, J., Mireles, G., Benz, M., Grenwelge, C., Peterson, R., & Zhang, D. (2010). Giving parents a voice: A qualitative study of the challenges experienced by parents of children with disabilities. Rehabilitation Psychology, 55(2), 139-50. doi: 10.1037/a0019473

Schertz, H. H., Horn, K., Lee, M. Mitchell, S. (2017). Supporting parents to help toddlers with autism risk make social connections. Young Exceptional Children, 20(1), 16-29.

Turnbull, A., Turnbull, R., Erwin, E., Soodak, L.C., & Shogren, K.A. (2015).  Families, professionals, and exceptionality: Positive outcomes through partnerships and trust.  Pearson.

Wolfe, K., & Durán, L. K. (2013). Culturally and linguistically diverse parents’ perceptions of the IEP Process: A review of current research. Multiple Voices for Ethnically Diverse Exceptional Learners, 13(2), 4-18.

Workgroup on Principles and Practices in Natural Environments, OSEP TA Community of Practice: Part C Settings. (2008, February). Seven key principles: Looks like / doesn’t look like. Retrieved from

Xu, Y. (2019). Partnering with families of young children with disabilities in inclusive settings. In L. Lo & Y. Xu (Eds.), Family, school, and community partnerships for students with disabilities. Advancing inclusive and special education in the Asia-Pacific (pp. 3-15). Springer.

Select a Category:

Select a Category:


ECPC Course Enhancement Modules E-Learning Lessons, Practice Guides & Resources 
CONNECT Modules CONNECT Modules and Courses
Faculty Forum - The Chronicle of Higher Education Archived Zoom Call: Faculty Resilience and the COVID-19 - Week 2
Frank Porter Graham Toolkit of Resources TOOLKIT: resources for early childhood faculty and instructors
Association of College and University Educators Online teaching toolkit
The Chronicle of Higher Education How to be a better online teacher advice guide
SCRIPT-NC Shifting to Online Instruction and Faculty Webinars
Openstax Open access to high quality textbooks online -free
CEEDAR Center Virtual Toolkit: Easing Faculty Transition to Online Instruction​
FREE RESOURCE: Poll Everywhere for Higher Ed. Faculty Create unlimited questions for up to 40 students
CEC Webinar and Resources Teaching Special Education Online During COVID-19
IRIS Center Planning for Distance Learning: Resources: Modules, Case Study Units, Activities
The Chronicle of Higher Education, Michelle D. Miller
Going Online in a Hurry: What to Do and Where to Start
The Chronicle of Higher Education, Kevin Gannon 4 Lessons from Moving a Face-to-Face Course Online
The Chronicle of Higher Education, Heather R. Taft, March 17, 2020 How to Quickly (and Safely) Move a Lab Course Online
The Chronicle of Higher Education Coping With Coronavirus: How Faculty Members Can Support Students in Traumatic Times
The Chronicle of Higher Education, Flower Darby How to Be a Better Online Teacher (Advice Guide)
Ohio Developmental Disabilities Council Video Series: Use of Technology with Evidence Based Early Intervention
National Center on Deaf Blindness
Open Hands, Open Access video learning modules
Coursera Child Development Courses


Activity Bank

*New* Tip sheet: Enhancing Family-Provider Partnerships During COVID-19  Enhancing Family-Provider Partnerships
Tips for Providers: Providing & Coordinating EI Remotely Tips for Providers: What to say to Families
Tips for Providers: Providing & Coordinating EI Remotely (What will it look like?) Tips for Providers: What will a Remote Visit Look Like?
Tips for Families: Receiving Remote EI Services Tips for Families Flyer .pdf What is Remote EI

Consejos para Familias .pdf What is Remote EI? (Spanish)

Tips for Families: How to prepare for a Remote EI Visit Tips for Families: .pdf Preparing for the Visit

TConsejos para Familias: .pdf Preparing for the Visit (Spanish)

ECPC Course Enhancement Modules E-Learning Lessons, Practice Guides & Resources 
CONNECT Modules CONNECT Modules and Courses
Virginia Early Intervention Professional Development Center Framework for reflective questioning / The Coaching Quick Reference Guide - .pdf
Virginia Early Intervention Professional Development Center Tools of Trade
OCALI (Ohio Center for Autism and Low Incidence Disabilities) (note: you must login but it is free) Suite of Resources for Early Childhood Professionals
Public Consulting Group Use of telehealth in early intervention (IDEA Part C)
Protecting Student Privacy

U.S. Department of Education

Student Privacy 101

FERPA and the Coronavirus Disease 2019

FERPA and Virtual Learning

Edelman, L. (2020). Planning for the Use of Video Conferencing for Early Intervention Home Visits during the COVID-19 Pandemic Planning for the Use of Video Conferencing for Early Intervention Home Visits during the COVID-19 Pandemic
CEC Hosted Webinar with Resources Teaching Special Education Online During COVID-19
National Center for Hearing Assessment & Management Utah State University Welcome to the Tele-Intervention Learning Courses
Lisa Dieker & Rebecca Hines UCF - Podcasts for Part B/619 Coordinators Series of Podcasts: teaching online, inclusion, etc.
National Center for Pyramid Model Innovations - May Newsletter Pyramid in the Time of COVID-19