Course Enhancement Modules are designed to be used by higher education faculty and professional development providers to support learning at the pre-service and in-service levels.
The curriculum enhancement modules are designed for flexible use.
Each curriculum enhancement module includes:
- Anchor presentation(s) with speaker notes and activities that can be used in their entirety or adapted.
- Each presentation includes references and additional related resources.
- Sample syllabi.
- PowerPoint 1- Introduction to Early Childhood Inclusion
- PowerPoint 2- The EC Environment
- PowerPoint 3- Specialized Instruction
- PowerPoint 4- Importance of Collaboration
- PowerPoint 5- The Future of Inclusion
This sample syllabus provides ideas for resources, activities, readings, and assignments, aligned with the EI/ECSE standards. Consider state and university policies and add them as appropriate. This is a sample only and is not a complete syllabus.
What Learners Should Know and Be Able to Do
Learners Who Have Mastered this Component/Topic Know and Understand:
- Definition of early childhood inclusion
- Research, laws and regulations, and policies supporting inclusive education
- The difference between:
- Inclusion and Least Restrictive Environment
- Inclusion models
- Inclusion and mainstreaming
- Challenges of the Special Education Integrated Preschool Model and the Inclusion Classroom
- Benefits of the Itinerant Early Childhood Special Education service-delivery model
- Benefits and components of a high-quality early childhood environment
- Vehicles to advance equity and counter bias in high-quality early childhood environments
- What is Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and Differentiated Instruction
- Purpose of a Quality Rating and Improvement System (QRIS)
- Purpose of Special Education
- Definition of specialized instruction
- How Target Skills are identified and prioritized
- Benefits of Embedded Instruction
- Purpose of the Planning Matrix
- Purpose in both monitoring child progress and implementation fidelity
- Characteristics of high-quality collaboration
- Value of Ongoing collaboration with families and educators
- How to collaborate with the general education teacher to determine target skills, instructional practices, and activities to embed instructional practices
- Dimensions of Belonging
- Alternative to designing classrooms specifically for children with disabilities
Learners Who Have Mastered this Component/Topic Are Able To:
- Support families in advocating for their child’s rights and best practices by explaining the relevant research, laws, and regulations.
- Support families in identifying high-quality general early childhood programs in their communities through a QRIS.
- Support families by explaining the Itinerant Early Childhood Special Education service-delivery model and its benefits.
- Contribute to an IEP meeting by describing the specialized instruction and collaboration provided in the general education environment.
- Provide specially designed instruction embedded into the everyday classroom activities and routines, monitor progress, and ensure implementation fidelity.
- Engage in reciprocal partnerships with a general education teacher, family, and other team members, plan for the special education and related services to be embedded into a child’s everyday routines by identifying Target Skills, Target Skills that require Specially Designed Instruction, Instructional Practices for each, the Activities in which to Embed the Instruction & a simple Planning Matrix to serve as a road map for the general EC teacher.
This section includes short videos, video vignettes, TED Talks, and webinars that relate to the topic. The majority addresses the evidence-based practice for adult learners of illustration. Some are informational and relate to the practice of introduction.
|Component and Title||Key Content||Duration||Link|
|Foundations of Inclusion Birth to Five||Inclusion
This short video provides an overview of inclusion legal and policy foundations and inclusion research, as well as a definition, the desired results, and defining features of inclusion in early childhood.
|13 min.||Module 1: Introduction - Connect Modules (dec-sped.org)|
|Start with Equity: From the Early Years to the Early Grades
Three policy areas: harsh discipline, lack of inclusion of students with disabilities in general classrooms, and inequitable and inadequate access to dual language programming.
The Children’s Equity Project and the Bipartisan Policy Center created an actionable policy roadmap for states and the federal government to take meaningful steps to remedy inequities in early learning and education systems.
|1 hr. 27 min.
1 hr. 32 min.
|Start with Equity Webinar Series, Part One: From the Early Years to the Early Grades - YouTube
|Meaningful Inclusion in Early Childhood||Inclusion
The Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction (DPI) describes how a school can meaningfully include students with disabilities using the Itinerant Model. Through interviews with parents and educators, the video reveals the benefits for children.
|Engaging Young Learners with Special Needs, HighScope Trailer||Inclusion
Describes how HighScope’s active learning model of early education provides inclusive experiences for children with and without disabilities, allowing children at all levels to succeed.
|3 min.||"Engaging Young Learners With Special Needs" Trailer - YouTube|
|CONNECT Module: Video 5.9: Dress-up time||Differentiated Instruction
A preschool-aged child uses pictures and symbols to communicate with a teacher about the clothes and toys she wants in the dramatic play area.
|1 min.||Video 5.9: Dress up time - Connect Modules (dec-sped.org)|
|CONNECT Module: Video 1.14: Routine in a program – expanded block play||Identifying Instructional Practices/ Embedded Instruction
Austin first uses a communication board posted on the wall to decide what he wants to build. Then, his therapist introduces a template to assist in the building process. Later, a peer is enlisted as a helper to create a door for his garage. In just 5 minutes, 3 different embedded interventions were used to help Austin successfully participate in this activity.
|3 min.||Video 1.14: Routine in a program – expanded block play - Connect Modules (dec-sped.org)|
|Embedded Instruction Practices, Puckett||Embedded Instruction
Embedded instruction involves multiple, brief teaching interactions between a teacher and child during everyday classroom activities. By identifying functional behavior targets, selecting classroom activities best suited for embedded learning opportunities, and using planned and intentional instructional strategies, teachers can help children learn new behaviors for participating in classroom activities throughout the day.
|3 min.||Embedded Instruction Practices - YouTube|
|CONNECT Module: Video 5.5 Max using a walker||Embedded Instruction
An adult helps a child use a walker to get from the classroom to the playground
|2 min.||Video 5.5 Max using a walker - Connect Modules (dec-sped.org)|
|CONNECT Module: Video 1.20: Routine in a program – eating lunch||Embedded Instruction
Luke uses a communication device to comment and make requests at mealtime.
|2 min.||Video 1.20: Routine in a program – eating lunch - Connect Modules (dec-sped.org)|
|CONNECT Module: Video 5.4: Perl using a switch and stander||Embedded Instruction
An adult uses two adaptations, a switch device, and a box, to allow a preschool-aged child to participate in a game with another child
|3 min.||Video 5.4: Perl using a switch and stander - Connect Modules (dec-sped.org)|
|CONNECT Module: Video 1.19: Routine in a program – singing with friends||Embedded Instruction
Luke participates in singing a favorite song with the facilitation of his speech therapist. She encourages peer interaction and has Luke choose which verse of the song to sing
|2 min.||Video 1.19: Routine in a program – singing with friends - Connect Modules (dec-sped.org)|
|CONNECT Module: Video 1.17: Routine in a program – playing red light, green light||Embedded Instruction
Jack, a preschooler, plays a game of red light green light with his classmates. He starts sitting on his teacher’s lap in the top left of the screen, using a voice output switch to lead the game. Then he takes a turn scooting across the floor, starting in the lower left of the screen next to the other teacher.
|2 min.||Video 1.17: Routine in a program – playing red light green light - Connect Modules (dec-sped.org)|
|CONNECT Module: Video 1.15: Routine at home – playing Mr. Potato Head®||Embedded Instruction
Luke and a friend, Kirsten, are at home playing with a Mr. Potato Head®. Watch for embedded interventions as Luke’s mother facilitates the activity.
|4 min.||Video 1.15: Routine at home – playing Mr. Potato Head® - Connect Modules (dec-sped.org)|
|CONNECT Module: Video 1.16: Routine in a program – reading at circle time||Embedded Instruction
A teacher combines several embedded interventions into circle time to support Jacob’s learning and participation.
|2 min.||Video 1.16: Routine in a program – reading at circle time - Connect Modules (dec-sped.org)|
|CONNECT Module: Video 1.12: Routine in a program – rolling with friends||Embedded Instruction
A physical therapist is working on developing Jake’s motor skills, particularly his ability to roll, surrounded by a roomful of classmates. What could have been a pull-out, one-on-one therapy session was turned into a fun group activity where all children participated and modeled their exercises.
|4 min.||Video 1.12: Routine in a program – rolling with friends - Connect Modules (dec-sped.org)|
|CONNECT Module: Video 1.11: Routine in a program – singing a song||Embedded Instruction
Jack watches and imitates a classmate, making motions during a song. He can play a game with a friend and work on motor skills throughout the song. Watch how the teacher encourages and facilitates the interaction between these peers.
|1 min.||Video 1.11: Routine in a program – singing a song - Connect Modules (dec-sped.org)|
|CONNECT Module: Video 1.9: Routine in a program – block play||Embedded Instruction
Austin’s occupational therapist has created a picture template to simplify building a block structure. Austin is able to place the blocks directly on the visual aid and build a garage for his car with minimal assistance from an adult.
|2 min.||Video 1.9: Routine in a program – block play - Connect Modules (dec-sped.org)|
|CONNECT Module: Video 5.6: Using an adapted tricycle||Embedded Instruction
An adult adapts a tricycle with a belt and foot pedals to help a child participate in riding bikes with other children on the playground and also to help with physical delays.
|3 min||Video 5.6: Using an adapted tricycle - Connect Modules (dec-sped.org)|
|CONNECT Module: Video 1.7: Routine in a program – building with blocks||Embedded Instruction
A speech therapist works with a toddler in a childcare facility. The therapist models appropriate communication orally, using signs, and using a picture board. She encourages a response by withholding toys and requiring him to ask for them.
|1 min.||Video 1.7: Routine in a program – building with blocks - Connect Modules (dec-sped.org)|
|CONNECT Module: Video 1.5: Routine in a program – enjoying mealtime||Embedded Instruction
Jalisa, a toddler with multiple disabilities, has joined a newly inclusive childcare setting. A practitioner helps Jalisa get into her special chair and assists Jalisa with a spoon. Jalisa’s team –Head Start practitioners, therapists, and the family – work together on planning and implementing embedded interventions.
|2 min.||Video 1.5: Routine in a program – enjoying mealtime - Connect Modules (dec-sped.org)|
|CONNECT Module: Video 4.5: Libby & Kim – Beginning ground conversation
A teacher and a parent of a 4-year-old girl have a conversation about working together and learning from one another. This conversation highlights developing an initial friendly relationship.
|3 min.||Video 4.5: Libby & Kim - Beginning ground conversation - Connect Modules (dec-sped.org)|
|CONNECT Module: Video 4.9: Maggie & Latesha – Middle ground conversation||Family Collaboration
A teacher in a child care center and a parent of a 4-year-old boy have a conversation about working together and learning from one another. This conversation highlights making shared decisions.
|5 min.||Video 4.9: Maggie & Latesha - Middle ground conversation - Connect Modules (dec-sped.org)|
|CONNECT Module: Video 4.6: Libby & Kim – Middle Ground Conversation||Family Collaboration
A teacher and a parent of a 4-year-old girl have a conversation about working together and learning from one another. This conversation highlights addressing challenging issues.
|5 min.||Video 4.6: Libby & Kim - Middle ground conversation - Connect Modules (dec-sped.org)|
|CONNECT Module: Video 3.3: Conversation with examples of attending and active listening||Collaboration between General Teacher and SLP
A Head Start teacher and speech therapist have a conversation about collaborating to address the learning goals of a 4-year-old child. This is part one of a three-part conversation highlighting examples of attending and active listening communication strategies.
|3 min.||Video 3.3: Conversation with examples of attending and active listening - Connect Modules (dec-sped.org)|
|CONNECT Module: Video 3.4: Conversation with examples of seeking and verifying information||Collaboration between General Teacher and SLP
A Head Start teacher and a speech therapist have a conversation about collaborating to address the learning goals of a 4-year-old child. This is part two of a three-part conversation highlighting examples of seeking and verifying communication strategies
|3 min.||Video 3.4: Conversation with examples of seeking and verifying information - Connect Modules (dec-sped.org)|
|CONNECT Module: Video 3.5: Conversation with examples of seeking and verifying information||Collaboration between General Teacher and SLP
A Head Start teacher and a speech therapist have a conversation about collaborating to address the learning goals of a 4-year-old child. Part three of a three-part conversation highlights examples of joining and supporting communication strategies.
|3 min.||Video 3.5: Conversation with examples of joining and supporting - Connect Modules (dec-sped.org)|
The projects or assignments require learners to apply knowledge and skills related to the topic. They align with the evidence-based practices for adult learners of authentic learning, reflection, guidance, performance feedback, and follow-up activities.
- Use of Research on Program Implementation (Standard 2: Component 2.2; Standard 7: Component 7.3 Component 7.4)
Given the evidence supporting inclusive education, consider past and present experiences you may have encountered in public schools and reflect on how districts may or may not be applying the research when creating programs for children with disabilities. The reflection should be at least 800 words and reference at least five sources.
- Supporting Families in Advocating for an Inclusive Education (Standard 2: Component 2.2; Standard 7: Component 7.3 Component 7.4)
Consider a case study of a 35-month-old boy named Devon who is transitioning out of Early Intervention and into Special Education. You will use this case study throughout this course. As only a small amount of information is conveyed in the information below, it will be up to you to fill in the unknown details for the assignments.
Devon has a diagnosis of Down Syndrome and has received Early Intervention services in his home and his childcare setting since he was an infant. Devon is a very social child with strong relationships with his parents and siblings. He is motivated to interact with adults and children but doesn’t always know how to initiate interactions. Devon loves listening to and joining in with age-appropriate songs, fingerplays, and familiar books. His receptive language is stronger than his expressive. He responds appropriately to one-step directions and answers yes/no questions by shaking his head. Devon uses many forms of expressing his thoughts and needs, including spoken language, gestures, facial expressions, and simple signs. He engages in all family activities and anticipates familiar routines. He enjoys making choices throughout his day and will indicate dissatisfaction if he cannot offer his preferences. Devon can sit independently for short periods but often loses his balance. He is beginning to pull up and stand with support. Devon can finger feed, drink from a cup with a lid, use a spoon, and pull off his socks. He can become frustrated when he cannot take care of his immediate needs, such as when attempting to eat with a fork, take off his coat, or turn on the bathroom faucet.
Devon’s family is excited for him to begin preschool but is confused by the recommendation at his recent IEP meeting. After discussing Devon’s current functioning and developing annual goals and objectives, Devon’s new preschool team proposed a self-contained classroom placement. They stated that due to his many delays, the small class would be the best option for Devon as the small class would provide him with the most service. Devon’s parents were surprised by this recommendation and asked for the IEP meeting to be continued the following week so that they had time to consider the placement. After the meeting, Devon’s parents contacted you as Devon’s Early Intervention provider, who has provided support within Devon’s home and childcare center for the last year and a half. They asked you to assist them in writing an email to the district stating why Devon should continue to attend his childcare center, where he receives the necessary special education and related services.
Write a draft email explaining in at least four paragraphs why Devon should be allowed to continue in the general early education setting with the appropriate embedded services and supports. Ensure to include information about the research, regulations, and benefits of an inclusive education.
- Compare and Contrast the Various Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE) Inclusion Models (Standard 2 Component 2.2; Standard 7: Component 7.3 Component 7.4)
Compare and contrast the various inclusion models, including mainstreaming, the integrated classroom, co-teaching, and itinerant service delivery. Additionally, consider how the Itinerant service-delivery model changes the role of the ECSE teacher. The reflection should be at least 800 words and reference at least five sources.
- Identifying & Implementing Embedded Learning Opportunities (Standard 1: Component 1.3 Component 1.4; Standard 6: Component 6.1 Component 6.3 Component 6.6)
Using the case study above, create a plan for providing Devon’s special education services embedded into his childcare center's everyday routine and activities. Include all of the following components: Target Skills, Target Skills that require Specially Designed Instruction, Instructional Practices for each, the Activities in which to Embed the Instruction, and a simple Planning Matrix to serve as a road map for the general EC teacher. Remember, not all of the necessary information is provided in the case study, so you will need to fill in the necessary gaps regarding how Devon learns and the specific routines in the classroom.
- Continuous and Ongoing Collaboration (Standard 2: Component 2.1 Component 2.2;
Standard 3: Component 3.1 Component 3.2; Standard 4: Component 4.4; Standard 6: Component 6.2 Component 6.3)
Continuing with the case study above, reflect in no less than 800 words on why it is critical to engage the general EC teacher, family, and other providers in the creation and ongoing monitoring of the Target Skills, Prioritized Target Skills, Instructional Practices, and the Activities in which to Embed Instruction.
Division for Early Childhood Learning Decks https://www.dec-sped.org/learning-decks
Division for Early Childhood Recommended Practices https://www.dec-sped.org/dec-recommended-practices
Council for Exceptional Children High Leverage Practices https://highleveragepractices.org/about-hlps/
ECTA Practice Improvement Tools: ECTA Center: Practice Improvement Tools: Using the DEC Recommended Practices
Head Start Early Learning and Knowledge Center https://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/
Zero to Three https://www.zerotothree.org/
Connect Modules https://connectmodules.dec-sped.org/connect-modules/resources
National Association for the Education of Young Children NAEYC Individuality and Inclusive Practices for Early Childhood
Modules from other sources that relate to the topic. They can be used in their entirety or by selecting sections or content that support the objectives of an IHE course or PD content. The evidence-based practices for adult learners will vary based on the module selected.
- Using Embedded Learning Opportunities in Inclusive Preschool Routines A DEC Learning Deck Webinar focusing on Embedded Learning Opportunities.
- CONNECT Modules Free instructional resources “for faculty and other professional development providers that focus on and respond to challenges faced each day by those working with young children and their families in a variety of learning environments and inclusive settings.”
- Module 3: Environment | RP Modules (unc.edu) Module on the EC Environment based on the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) Recommended Practices. In this module, you will learn the components of a child’s natural and inclusive environment and why attending to the environment is crucial for children with disabilities.
- Module 4: Teaming and Collaboration | RP Modules (unc.edu) Module on Teaming and Collaboration based on the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) Recommended Practices. In this module, you will learn the components of teaming and collaboration and why teaming and collaboration amongst practitioners and families is crucial for children with disabilities.
|Access||Access refers to providing a wide range of activities and environments (adults, peers, materials) for every child by removing physical barriers, making adaptations, and offering multiple ways to promote engagement for learning and development.||DEC/NAEYC. (2009). Early childhood inclusion: A joint position statement of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) and the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina, FPG Child Development Institute. Retrieved from http://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/file/positions/DEC_NAEYC_EC_updatedKS.pdf|
|Accommodations||Accommodations include any changes to materials, response modes, assessment, or instructional procedures that allow children with disabilities to fully demonstrate their knowledge and skills. Accommodations are designed to eliminate barriers. For example, a preschool child with a visual impairment might use a large print book during a small-group dialogic reading activity while classmates use a regular print book.||DEC/NAEYC. (2009). Early childhood inclusion: A joint position statement of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) and the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina, FPG Child Development Institute. Retrieved from http://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/file/positions/DEC_NAEYC_EC_updatedKS.pdf
|Adaptations||Adaptations refer to changes or modifications to activities or materials in the environment to facilitate or maximize a child’s participation.||Sandall, S. R., & Schwartz, I. S. (2008). Building blocks for teaching preschoolers with special needs (2nd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Brookes|
|Assessment||Assessment refers to the process of collecting information for the purpose of making informed decisions.||Sandall, S., Hemmeter, M. L., Smith, B. J., & McLean, M. E. (Eds.). (2005). DEC recommended practices: A comprehensive guide for practical application in early intervention/early childhood special education. Missoula, MT: Division for Early Childhood.|
|Assistive technology (or assistive devices):||The term ‘assistive technology device’ means any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a child with a disability.||Sandall, S., Hemmeter, M. L., Smith, B. J., & McLean, M. E. (Eds.). (2005). DEC recommended practices: A comprehensive guide for practical application in early intervention/early childhood special education. Missoula, MT: Division for Early Childhood.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 20 U.S.C. & 602 (2004)
|Authentic assessment||“… the systematic recording of developmental observations over time about the naturally occurring behaviors and functional competencies of young children in daily routines by familiar and knowledgeable caregivers in the child’s life” (p. 29).||Bagnato, S. J., & Yeh-Ho, H. (2006). High-stakes testing with preschool children: Violation of professional standards for evidence-based practice in early childhood intervention. KEDI International Journal of Educational Policy, 3(1), 23-43.|
|Belonging||Erik Carter, Ph.D., described belonging by identifying ten dimensions: Present, Invited, Welcomed, Known, Accepted, Supported, Cared for, Befriended, Needed, and Loved.||Carter explores what it means to be a community of belonging for people with disabilities - Notables (vkcsites.org)|
|Child Find||A continuous process includes public awareness activities, screening, and evaluation to locate, identify, and evaluate children eligible for EI/ECSE services. IDEA requires active identification, evaluation, and eligibility determination for both Part C (0-3) and Part B of the law. Part B must ensure all children birth to age 21 are identified. The regulation draws specific attention to children with disabilities in traditionally marginalized groups. Part C requires a “comprehensive child find system.” Part C must be consistent with Part B but also include in its child-find efforts all other major primary referral sources (i.e., hospitals, physicians, parents, social services, LEA, and schools). Public awareness is a part of the Part C child find procedures.||Wright, P., & Wright P. (2019, January 1). The child find mandate: What does it mean to you? Wrightslaw.
Wright, P., & Wright P. (2007). Wrightslaw: Special education law [2nd ed.]. Hartfield, VA: Harbor House Law Press.
|Child-initiated routines and activities||Routines and activities that children initiate themselves, as opposed to routines and activities that are initiated and directed by adults.||Schweinhart, L. (2016). Child-initiated learning. In D. Couchenour & J. Chrisman (Eds.), The sage encyclopedia of contemporary early childhood education (pp. 231-233). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/ 9781483340333.n61|
|Coaching||Coaching is a cyclical process designed to support practitioners, primary caregivers, or other adults to implement interactional or instructional practices with fidelity. Primary components of coaching include needs assessment, goal setting, action planning, observation, and reflection and feedback.||National Center on Quality Teaching and Learning. (2014). Practice-Based Coaching: Collaborative Partnerships. Practice-Based Coaching | Collaborative Partnerships|
|Collaboration||Collaboration refers to interactive relationships between adults, such as family members and professionals, who work together to achieve mutually agreed-upon outcomes/goals.||Division for Early Childhood. (2014). DEC recommended practices in early intervention/early childhood special education 2014. Retrieved from https://www.dec-sped.org/dec-recommended-practices|
|Communication||Communication is any means by which an individual relates or exchanges experiences, ideas, preferences, knowledge, and feelings.||McCauley, R. & Fey, M. (2006). Treatment of language disorders in children. Baltimore, MD: Brookes|
|Consultation||Consultation involves professionals providing training, technical assistance, and feedback to those individuals working directly with children.||Sandall, S., Hemmeter, M. L., Smith, B. J., & McLean, M. E. (Eds.). (2005). DEC recommended practices: A comprehensive guide for practical application in early intervention/early childhood special education. Missoula, MT: Division for Early Childhood.|
|Content domains||Defined domains of knowledge and skills consist of the body of knowledge and information upon which intervention and instruction are based and that children are expected to learn in academic programs and programs promoting academic readiness. Common content areas include language arts, mathematics, science, art, music, and social studies.||Great Schools Partnership. (2016, May 3). Glossary of education reform: Content knowledge. https://www.edglossary.org/content-knowledge/
National Association for the Education of Young Children. (n.d.) What Do Children Learn in a High-Quality Preschool Program? | NAEYC
|Co-teaching||Two (or more) educators or other certified staff contract to share instructional responsibility for a single group of students, primarily in a single classroom or workspace, for specific content (objectives), with mutual ownership, pooled resources, and joint accountability, although each individual's level of participation may vary.||https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED486454.pdf|
|Cultural and linguistic diversity||Cultural and linguistic diversity refers to “behavioral, value, linguistic, and other differences ascribed to people’s cultural backgrounds. Cultural diversity almost invariably includes some level of diversity in how language is understood and used . . . [the terms] cultural diversity and cultural linguistic diversity [are often used] synonymously” (Barrera, Corso, & Macpherson, 2003, p. 6)||Barrera, I., Corso, R., & Macpherson, D. (2003). Skilled dialogue: Strategies for responding to cultural diversity in early childhood. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.|
|Culturally and linguistically responsive and affirming||Approaches that empower individuals intellectually, socially, emotionally, and politically by using cultural and historical referents to convey knowledge, impart skills, and change attitudes. Such approaches involve consciously creating social interactions to help individuals meet the criteria of academic success, cultural competence, and critical consciousness and include creating individual-centered learning environments that affirm cultural identities; foster positive learning outcomes; develop children’s abilities to connect across lines of difference; elevate historically marginalized voices; empower children as agents of social change; and contribute to individual child engagement, learning, growth, and achievement through the cultivation of critical thinking. These approaches challenge norms (e.g., expectations regarding language, behavior, and social interactions) to be responsive to marginalized children and families and work towards greater equity.||Barrera, I., Corso, R. M., & Macpherson, D. (2003). Skilled dialogue: Strategies for responding to cultural diversity in early childhood. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing.
Division for Early Childhood. (2015). DEC recommended practices glossary. https://divisionearlychildhood. egnyte.com/dl/facKSfYlFI
Ladson-Billings, G. (2014, April) Culturally relevant pedagogy 2.0: a.k.a. the remix. Harvard Educational Review. 84(1), 74-84. https://doi.org/10.17763/haer.84.1.p2rj13148 5484751
New York State Education Department. (n.d.) Culturally responsive-sustaining education Culturally Responsive-Sustaining Education | New York State Education Department (nysed.gov)
|Curriculum frameworks||Supportive structures that provide guidance for EI/ECSE professionals to align developmental and content knowledge and related pedagogy to plan meaningful learning activities, environments, and individualized supports to ensure all children will progress in rigorous content and achieve desired learning outcomes. Examples include UDL, MTSS, and early childhood curriculum models (e.g., Creative Curriculum, High Scope, Bank Street, Montessori).||Horn, E. M., Palmer, S. B., Butera, G.D., & Lieber, J. A. (2016). Six steps to inclusive preschool curriculum. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.|
|Developmental domains||Specific areas of human growth and development such as cognition, social-emotional, motor/physical, communication, play, and adaptive behavior.||National Center for Hearing Assessment and Management. (2016) Eligibility and service delivery policies: Differences between IDEA Part C and IDEA Part B: A comparison chart [PDF file]. https://www.infanthearing.org/earlyintervention/docs/aspect-idea-part-c-and-idea-part-b.pdf|
|Developmentally appropriate practice||An approach to intervention and instruction whereby an early childhood professional bases decisions about children’s developmental and learning goals and experiences on (a) knowledge of child development and learning to determine experiences likely to promote positive outcomes, (b) knowledge of each child’s abilities and characteristics to adapt and be responsive for each child, and (c) knowledge of children’s social, linguistic, and cultural contexts to ensure that learning experiences are relevant and respectful for each child and family.||National Association for the Education of Young Children. (2019). What is developmentally appropriate practice (DAP)?|
|DEC Recommended Practices (RPs)||A set of practices based on the best available empirical evidence as well as the wisdom and experience of the field that were developed to guide EI/ECSE professionals and families about the most effective ways to improve the learning outcomes and promote the development of young children, birth through five years of age, who have or are at-risk for developmental delays or disabilities in eight topic areas: • Leadership, • Assessment, • Environment, • Family, • Instruction, • Interaction, • Teaming and collaboration, and • Transition||Division for Early Childhood. (2014). DEC recommended practices [PDF file].|
|Differentiated Instruction||The teacher anticipates the differences in students' readiness, interests, and learning profiles and, as a result, creates different learning paths so that students can learn as much as they can as deeply as possible. This is not individualized instruction or specialized instruction.||https://pdo.ascd.org/LMSCourses/PD11OC115M/media/DI-Intro_M1_Reading_What_Is_DI.pdf|
|Dual language learners||Dual language learners are children who are learning two (or more) languages simultaneously, as well as those learning a second language while continuing to develop their first (or home) language. Other terms used include Limited English Proficient (LEP), bilingual, English language learners (ELL), English learners, and children who speak a language other than English (LOTE).||National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Resource Center. (2008). Dual Language Learning: What does it take? (Contract No. 233-02-0002). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from Dual Language Learning: What Does It Take? (hhs.gov)
|Early Childhood Environment||Classrooms that are safe, responsive, and nurturing environments are an essential part of supporting the learning and development of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Such environments also help to prevent challenging behaviors and serve as a core component of interventions for infants and young children with identified disabilities.||IRIS | Page 1: Early Childhood Environments (vanderbilt.edu)|
|Early Childhood Inclusion||Early childhood inclusion embodies the values, policies, and practices that support the right of every infant and young child and their family, regardless of ability, to participate in a broad range of activities and contexts as full members of families, communities, and society. The desired results of inclusive experiences for children with and without disabilities and their families include a sense of belonging and membership, positive social relationships and friendships, and development and learning to reach their full potential.||Division for Early Childhood of the Council for Exceptional Children & the National Association for the Education of Young Children. (2009). https://www.decdocs.org/position-statement-inclusion
|Early Childhood Special Educators||Education professionals who provide Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education services to children birth through 8 years who are at risk for and with developmental delays and disabilities.||Division for Early Childhood. (2017, September) Position statement on personnel standards in early childhood special education [PDF file].|
|Early Intervention (Part C)||Individualized services and support for children birth to 3 years at risk for or with developmental delays and disabilities and their families.||Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center. (n.d.) Part C of IDEA: Overview|
|Early Learning Standards||A set of expectations, guidelines, or developmental milestones that describe what all children from birth through kindergarten entry should know and be able to do.||Early Learning Standards: Creating the Conditions for Success (naeyc.org)|
|Embedded Instruction||Multiple, brief teaching interactions between a teacher and child during everyday activities and routines.||https://ectacenter.org/~pdfs/decrp/PGP_INS3_embedded_2018.pdf|
|Equity||Equitable early childhood education services require teaching in culturally responsive ways, implementing developmentally appropriate practices, and including families in policy decisions.||Equity in State Systems | The Administration for Children and Families (hhs.gov)|
|Evidence-based practice||Used as a Noun - Practices that are based on the best available empirical research that documents the practice’s efficacy with young children and families; the wisdom and knowledge of the field; and the core guiding values, beliefs, and theoretical approaches of EI/ECSE.
Used as a Verb – The process for selecting and implementing practices that weigh research evidence, family and professional wisdom and values, and a child's individual characteristics, strengths, and needs.
|Odom, S. L., & Wolery, M. (2003). A unified theory of practice in early intervention/early childhood special education: Evidence-based practices. The Journal of Special Education, 37(3), 164-173.
Buysse, V., Wesley, P. W., Snyder, P., & Winton, P. (2006). Evidence-based practice: What does it really mean for the early childhood field? Young Exceptional Children, 9(4), 2-11.
|Family||A child’s consistent (i.e., primary) caregiver(s) are responsible for the child’s wellbeing and development and are partners in the child’s education and intervention. This may include a variety of individuals, including, but not limited to, the child’s biological, adoptive, or foster parent(s), legal guardians, siblings, grandparents, other relatives, and others within the child’s primary support network.||Mapp, K., & Kuttner, P. J. (2013). Partners in education: A dual capacity-building framework for family-school partnerships. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Lab.
Turnbull, A. P., Turnbull, R., Erwin, E. J., Soodak, L. C., & Shogren, K. A. (2014). Families, professionals, and exceptionality: Positive outcomes through partnerships and trust (7th ed.). New York: Pearson.
|Family capacity-building practices||Participatory opportunities and experiences afforded to families to strengthen existing parenting knowledge and skills and promote the development of new parenting abilities that enhance parenting self-efficacy beliefs and practices and are guided by families’ individual strengths and needs, priorities, goals and preferences, and cultural and linguistic characteristics.||Division for Early Childhood. (2014).|
|Fidelity||Implementation of the key characteristics of practice, as planned, based on the best available research evidence examining the relationship between the practice’s characteristics and consequences and family and professional wisdom about expected or intended benefits.||Dunst, C. J., Trivette, C. M., & Raab, M. (2013). An implementation science framework for conceptualizing and operationalizing fidelity in early childhood intervention studies. Journal of Early Intervention, 35(2), 85-101.|
|Functional behavior assessment||Collecting data to investigate the environmental variables maintaining and/or contributing to a challenging behavior. A functional assessment includes systematically identifying the challenging behavior, events that precede such behavior (antecedents), and events that maintain such behavior (consequences), with results used to identify, plan, implement, and support others to implement individual behavior support plans.||Dunlap, G., & Fox, L. (2011). Function-based interventions for children with challenging behavior. Journal of Early Intervention, 33(4), 333- 343.|
|General Early Childhood Environment||“Unlike the integrated preschool model, general or regular early childhood environments are designed primarily for children without disabilities and typically include community-based early care and education centers and preschools, Head Start programs, family child care, and the increasing number of state-funded PreK programs. General early childhood educators teach these classes and include on-site instruction and consultation by early childhood special educators and or providers of related services. When considering placements for preschool children with developmental delays or disabilities, it is important to consider community-based programs as the LRE.”||Rhode Island Department of Education Office of Student, Community and Academic Supports (OSCAS): Tips for Special Education Directors|
|High Leverage Practices (HLPs)||Practices based on best-available research evidence and field consensus reflect practices frequently used in the classroom and considered critical for special educators, kindergarten through twelfth grade, because of their high potential to improve student outcomes, which can be taught in teacher preparation programs.||McLeskey, J., Barringer, M-D., Billingsley, B., Brownell, M., Jackson, D., Kennedy, M., Lewis, T., Maheady, L., Rodriguez, J., Scheeler, M. C., Winn, J., & Ziegler, D. (2017, January). High leverage practices in special education [PDF file]. The CEEDAR Center at the University of Florida | The CEEDAR Center (ufl.edu)
McLeskey, J., Billingsley, B., Brownell, M. T., Maheady, L., & Lewis, T. J. (2019). What are high-leverage practices for special education teachers and why are they important? Remedial and Special Education, 40(6), 331-337.
|Implicit Bias||Implicit bias refers to the attitudes or stereotypes that affect our understanding, actions, and decisions in an unconscious manner.
Implicit racial bias can help us better understand how institutional racism and other forms of bias affect the educational experiences of students from marginalized communities.
|Institutional Racism – Biases & Solutions (ed.gov)|
|Inclusion||Values, policies, and practices that support the right of every young child, regardless of ability or support needs, and their family to participate in a broad range of high-quality learning opportunities, activities, settings, and environments characterized by (a) individualized accommodations and supports that facilitate a child’s full participation in play and learning activities with peers and adults; and (b) systems-level infrastructure supports for individuals and organizations providing inclusive services for children and families||Division for Early Childhood of the Council for Exceptional Children & the National Association for the Education of Young Children. (2009). https://www.decdocs.org/position-statement-inclusion
|Inclusive Environments||Settings that facilitate inclusion. For infants and toddlers, natural environments represent a broad array of contexts and activities typically available to children without disabilities and their families. For children 3 through 8 years, inclusive environments may include a variety of organizational contexts (e.g., public school, private community-based centers) and ECSE service delivery models (e.g., co-teaching/team teaching, itinerant/consultant).||Division for Early Childhood of the Council for Exceptional Children & the National Association for the Education of Young Children. (2009). Early Childhood Inclusion (naeyc.org)
Love, H. R., & Horn, E. (2019). Definition, context, quality: Current issues in research examining high-quality inclusive education. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education. Definition, Context, Quality: Current Issues in Research Examining High-Quality Inclusive Education - Hailey R. Love, Eva Horn, 2021 (sagepub.com)
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services & U. S. Department of Education (2015). Policy statement on inclusion of children with disabilities in early childhood programs. joint-statement-full-text.pdf (ed.gov)
|Individualized Education Program (IEP)||An Individualized Education Program or IEP is a written statement for each child 3-22 years old with a disability that is developed, reviewed, and revised in a meeting in accordance with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.||Sec. 300.320 Definition of individualized education program - Individuals with Disabilities Education Act|
|Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP)||An Individualized Family Service Plan or IFSP is a written statement for each child, birth-3 years old, with a disability that is developed, reviewed, and revised in a meeting in accordance with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.||Sec. 303.340 Individualized family service plan—general - Individuals with Disabilities Education Act|
|Individualized instruction||Individualized instruction refers to instruction tailored to meet a child’s needs, background, interests, and phase of learning with respect to the current target behavior, learning style, and history.||Grisham-Brown, J., Hemmeter, M. L., & Pretti-Frontczak, K. (2005). Blended practices for teaching young children in inclusive settings. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.|
|Informed clinical opinion||Integration of the results of evaluations and direct observations in various settings, professional judgment based on experience and expertise, and family input to make recommendations for initial and continuing eligibility for EI/ECSE services and to plan services for those children whose developmental status and EI/ECSE needs may be challenging to assess with formal measures.||https://ectacenter.org/~pdfs/decrp/PGP_ASM1_informedclinical_2018.pdf|
|Instruction||A set of practices that are evidence-based, intentional, and systematic, and support development and learning for all young children across developmental and content domains. Instruction includes intentionally structuring children’s environments and learning experiences, and methods used to teach a curriculum. Instruction is used across natural environments and inclusive settings in collaboration with families and other professionals.||Boat, M., Dinnebeil, L., & Bae, Y. (2010). Individualizing instruction in preschool classrooms. Dimensions of Early Childhood, 38(1), 4-10.
Division for Early Childhood. (2015). DEC recommended practices glossary.
Wolery, M. (2012). Voices from the field. Young Exceptional Children, 15(4), 41-44.
|Instructional Practices||When teachers of young children identify specific behaviors or skills they want a child to learn, they can use systematic instruction practices to teach those targeted skills. By carefully planning and intentionally using teacher-directed instruction strategies, teachers can help a child learn a new behavior, continue to use the behavior over time, and use the behavior in different activities and with different people.||Systematic Instruction Practices (ectacenter.org)|
|Integrated Preschool Class||Classrooms are designed primarily for preschool children with disabilities and include children without disabilities who are located in a public school building. Many states have relied on this model rather than including children with disabilities in general education preschool programs. The ratios and requirements differ by state but usually require just one more child without a disability.||Reference Guide to the Regulations Governing the Education of Children with Disabilities|
|Intervention||A set of strategies that are evidence-based, individualized, and support specific individualized developmental and learning objectives across natural environments and inclusive settings in collaboration with families and other professionals.||Division for Early Childhood. (2015). DEC recommended practices glossary.
Wolery, M. (2004). Using assessment information to plan intervention programs. In M. McLean, M. Wolery, & D. B. Bailey, Jr. (Eds.), Assessing infants and preschoolers with special needs (pp. 517-544). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
|Itinerant Early Childhood Special Education (IECSE) Teacher||Itinerant Early Childhood Special Education (IECSE) is a research-based service delivery model for providing special education services to young children with disabilities within general early childhood environments. It serves as an alternative to the provision of services within separate settings, classes, or schools. The IECSE model allows young children with disabilities to actively participate in all classroom activities by embedding the necessary supports, services, and interventions.||Participation in General EC Programs | RI Department of Education|
|Leadership||Early childhood leadership encompasses the ability to create and run excellent programs for young children and the ability to be effective and powerful in decision-making affecting children and families.||Mitchell, A. (1997). Reflections on early childhood leadership development: Finding your own path. In S. L. Kagan & B. T. Bowman (Eds.), Leadership in early care and education (pp. 85-96). Washington, DC: NAEYC|
|Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)||The IDEA requires that, to the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities, including children in public or private institutions or other care facilities, are educated with children who are nondisabled, and Special classes, separate schooling, or other removal of children with disabilities from the regular educational environment occurs only if the nature or severity of the disability is such that education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily.||Sec. 300.114 LRE requirements - Individuals with Disabilities Education Act|
|Mainstreaming||“The difference between mainstreaming and inclusion is philosophical. In mainstreaming, children with disabilities had to “be ready” to be integrated into the mainstream. The emphasis was placed on helping the child with disabilities meet the existing expectations of the classroom. Often, the child with disabilities was regarded as a visitor in the classroom and was actually assigned (according to school records) to a special education class.||The Exceptional Child: Inclusion in Early Childhood Education, 9th Edition.
|Modeling||Modeling is an instructional strategy in which skills or strategies are demonstrated so that students (children or adults) can tell what is expected of them.||Sandall, S., Hemmeter, M. L., Smith, B. J., & McLean, M. E. (Eds.). (2005). DEC recommended practices: A comprehensive guide for practical application in early intervention/early childhood special education. Division for Early Childhood.|
|Natural Environment||Home and community settings (e.g., child care programs, libraries, parks) in which children spend time participating in activities and routines regardless of their ability or needs and that are typically available to children without disabilities.||Division for Early Childhood of the Council for Exceptional Children & the National Association for the Education of Young Children. (2009). Early childhood inclusion: A joint position statement of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) and the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). Early Childhood Inclusion (naeyc.org)|
|Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP)||OSEP administers the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which authorizes formula grants to states under Part B, grants to lead agencies for the infants and families program under Part C, and discretionary grants under Part D to institutions of higher education and other non-profit organizations to support grants for state personnel development, technical assistance and dissemination, technology, personnel development, and parent-training and information centers.||OSEP: About OSEP (ed.gov)|
|Outcome||An outcome is a benefit experienced as a result of services and supports provided for a child or family. An outcome results in improved child and family functioning.||Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center. (2014). Outcomes measurement: Outcomes FAQ. Retrieved from http://ectacenter.org/eco/pages/faqs.asp
|Participation||Participation refers to being a part of everyday life situations that include regular activities and routines of any setting in which children spend time (see natural environments). Children’s involvement in the activities and routines may need to be adapted to ensure they are able to be integral members of the activity or routine.||Sandall, S., Hemmeter, M. L., Smith, B. J., & McLean, M. E. (Eds.). (2005). DEC recommended practices: A comprehensive guide for practical application in early intervention/early childhood special education. Missoula, MT: Division for Early Childhood.|
|Physical Environments||The physical environment encompasses structural conditions such as space, equipment, and material resources (e.g., books and toys) and relates to safety and access. It may be a home, daycare center, school, or neighborhood.||Kolobe, T. H., Arevalo, A., & Catalino, T. A. (2012). The environment of intervention. In S. K. Campbell, R. J. Palisano, & M. N. Orlin (Eds.), Physical therapy for children (4th ed., pp. 879-902). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.|
|Play||A distinct developmental domain is characterized by activities with objects and people that capture a child’s attention and interest as they experiment, try new ideas and roles, investigate laws of nature, and represent what they know about and are learning from ongoing events. As a context for learning, play skills can be operationalized, and predicted, and a focus of intervention and instruction with children’s learning goals embedded in indoor and outdoor play activities.||Barton, E. E., & Wolery, M. (2008). Teaching pretend play to children with disabilities: A review of the literature. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 28(2), 109- 125. doi:10.1177/0271121408318799
Brown, S. L. (2009). Play: How it shapes the brain, opens the imagination, and invigorates the soul. New York, NY: Penguin.
Lifter, K., Mason, E. J., & Barton, E. E. (2011). Children’s play: Where we have been and where we could go. Journal of Early Intervention, 33(4), 281-297.
|Practice||Practice is an approach used to promote [children’s or adults’] development and learning that adults implement when interacting with other adults, children, or materials within or across contexts. To be considered a practice, the approach must be clearly described and commonly understood in the field and literature. The literature may use several terms to refer to the same practice. It is also possible for a named practice to refer to an array of specific procedures or for several practices to be combined as part of a comprehensive approach to promote development and learning.||WWC evidence review protocol for early childhood education interventions for children with disabilities, version 2.0 (n.d.). Retrieved from Institute of Education Sciences, What Works Clearinghouse website: https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/ReportingGuide
|Practitioner||Practitioners are those who are responsible for and paid to enhance the optimal development of young children who have or are at risk for developmental delays/disabilities. This includes providing care, education, or therapy to the child, as well as support to the child’s family.||Division for Early Childhood. (2014). DEC recommended practices in early intervention/early childhood special education 2014. Retrieved from https://www.dec-sped.org/dec-recommended-practices
|Professional standards||Professional standards provide a set of expectations or benchmarks for measuring whether, and if so, at what level, educators have mastered the core knowledge and skills. Standards are frequently used to guide accreditation or licensing and describe “the qualifications and credentials needed” to work in specific roles (Harbin, Rous, & McLean, 2005, p. 142).||Winton, P. J., & West, T. (2011). Early childhood competencies: Sitting on the shelf or guiding professional development? In C. Howes & R. Pianta (Eds.), Foundations for Teaching Excellence: Connecting early childhood quality rating, professional development, and competency systems in states (pp.69-92). Baltimore, MD: Brookes. Harbin, G. L., Rous, B., & McLean, M. (2005). Issues in designing in-state accountability systems. Journal of Early Intervention, 27(3), 137-164.|
|Progress Monitoring||Progress monitoring is a formal protocol necessary to collect valid and reliable data to chart students’ performance against expected outcomes. It is used to assess students’ academic performance, quantify their rates of improvement or progress toward goals, and determine how they are responding to instruction.||What is progress monitoring? | EdWords | Renaissance|
|Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS)||A systemic approach to assess, improve, and communicate the level of quality in early and school-age care and education programs.||Home | QRIS Resource Guide (hhs.gov)|
|Reflective Practice||The process by which EI/ECSE professionals examine their assumptions, values, beliefs, and professional practices and consider actions to be taken to continuously improve their own practice and reconstruct their assumptions, values, and beliefs.||McFarland, L., Saunders, R., & Allen, S. (2009). Reflective practice and self-evaluation in learning positive guidance: Experiences of early childhood practicum students. Early Childhood Education Journal, 36(6), 505-511.
Sellars, M. (2017). Reflective practice for teachers (2nd ed.). Washington D. C.: Sage.
|Related Services||Transportation and such developmental, corrective, and other supportive services as are required to assist a child with a disability to benefit from special education, and includes speech-language pathology and audiology services, interpreting services, psychological services, physical and occupational therapy, recreation, including therapeutic recreation, early identification and assessment of disabilities in children, counseling services, including rehabilitation counseling, orientation, and mobility services, and medical services for diagnostic or evaluation purposes. Related services include school health and nurse services, school social work services, and parent counseling and training.||Sec. 300.34 Related services - Individuals with Disabilities Education Act|
|Routines||Routines are events that occur consistently in a child’s or children’s natural environments. For example, arrival/departure at childcare, snack, naptime at preschool, and bath and story time at home.||Pretti-Frontczak, K., & Bricker, D. (2004). An activity-based approach to early intervention (3rd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.|
|Scaffolding||Scaffolding refers to a learning situation in which a teacher provides prompts and hints to support the learner and then gradually withdraws these supports as the learner performs with increasing independence.||Bodrova E., & Leong, D. J. (2012). Tools of the mind: Vygotskian approach to early childhood education. In J. L. Roopnarine & J. Jones, Approaches to early childhood education (6th ed., pp. 241-260). Columbus, OH: Merrill/Prentice Hall.|
|Service Coordination||An active, ongoing process that assists families as they access services and assures their rights and procedural safeguards. Part C of IDEA includes EI service coordination as a mandated service.||Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center. (n.d.) Service coordination under Part C. ECTA Center: Service Coordination Under Part C|
|Special Education||Specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parents, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability and to ensure access to the general curriculum so that the child can meet the educational standards within the jurisdiction of the public agency that applies to all children.||Sec. 300.39 Special education - Individuals with Disabilities Education Act|
|Specially Designed Instruction (Specialized Instruction)||Specially designed instruction means adapting, as appropriate to the needs of an eligible child under this part, the content, methodology, or delivery of instruction to address the unique needs of the child that result from the child’s disability.||Sec. 300.39 Special education - Individuals with Disabilities Education Act|
|Strength-based||Approaches that concentrate on the inherent strengths of children and their families. The philosophy views children and their families as resourceful, resilient, and self-determined.||Green, B. L., McAllister, C. L., & Tarte, J. M. (2004). The strengths-based practices inventory: A tool for measuring strengths-based service delivery in early childhood and family support programs. Families in Society, 85(3), 326-334.|
|Target Skills||Skills needed to learn or acquire to help a child become adaptive, competent, socially connected, and engaged and that promote learning in natural and inclusive environments.||Official DEC 2014 Recommended Practices.pdf (egnyte.com)|
|Team||A team includes representatives from multiple disciplines and the family who join forces or combine efforts in response to the service setting, unique needs, and desired outcomes of the child and family. Each individual on the team contributes to a clearly defined portion of the effort.||Dettmer, P., Thurston, L., & Dyck, N. (2005). Consultation, collaboration, and teamwork for students with special needs (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.|
|Transition||Transition refers to the physical movement of children in the classroom from one activity to another. This can occur in a staggered fashion (e.g., small groups of children moving or one child moving), but it eventually results in the movement of the majority of children from one activity to another.||Alger, H. A. (1984). Transitions: Alternatives to manipulative management techniques. Young Children, 39, 16-25|
|Universal Design for Learning (UDL)||Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a framework for increasing access to education environments and opportunities, including in infant and toddler settings. Learning environments, materials, and activities are planned ahead of time to welcome all learners. UDL supports all children, including infants and toddlers with disabilities, to help them fully engage in learning. It doesn't replace individualized curriculum modifications necessary for particular children. The three guiding principles of UDL are Representation — offering children a variety of ways to learn new skills and information; Action and expression — allowing for flexibility in how infants and toddlers demonstrate success and understanding; and engagement — building on infant/toddler development and interests and giving them choices.||Universal Design for Learning (UDL) | ECLKC (hhs.gov)|
Supporting literature and resources which may be assigned as readings for pre-service and in-service learners. These must align with the evidence-based practice for adult learners of introduction.
- Dinnebeil, L., & McInerney, W. (2023). Coaching and Consultation Practices in Early Childhood. Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
- Barton, E. E., & Smith, B. J. (2014). Fact sheet of research on preschool inclusion. Pyramid Plus: The Colorado Center for Social Emotional Competence and Inclusion.
- Division for Early Childhood /National Association for the Education for Young Children. (2009). Early childhood inclusion: A joint position statement of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) and the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). The University of North Carolina, FPG Child Development Institute. Early Childhood Inclusion (naeyc.org)
- Odom, S. L., Buysse, V., & Soukakou, E. (2012). Inclusion for young children with disabilities: A quarter century of research perspectives. Journal of Early Intervention, 33(4), 344-356. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1053815111430094
- S. Department of Health and Human Services & U.S. Department of Education. (2015). Policy statement on inclusion of children with disabilities in early childhood programs. https://www2.ed.gov/policy/speced/guid/earlylearning/joint-statement-full-text.pdf
- Daugherty, S., Grisham-Brown, J., & Hemmeter, M. L. (2001). The effects of embedded skill instruction on the acquisition of target and nontarget skills in preschoolers with developmental delays. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 21(4), 213-221. https://doi.org/10.1177/027112140102100402
- Horn, E., & Banerjee, R. (2009). Understanding curriculum modifications and embedded learning opportunities in the context of supporting all children's success. Language, Speech, and Hearing in Schools, 40(4), 406-415. https://doi.org/10.1044/0161-1461(2009/08-0026)
- Carter, E. W., Tuttle, M., Asmus, J. M., Moss, C. K., & Lloyd, B. P. (2023). Observations of Students With and Without Severe Disabilities in General Education Classes: A Portrait of Inclusion? Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1177/10883576231178268
- Bustamante, A. S., Dearing, E., Daae Zachrisson, H., & Lowe Vandell, D. (2021). Adult outcomes of sustained high-quality early child care and education: Do they vary by family income? Child Development, 93(2), 502-523. https://srcd.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cdev.13696
- Bustamante, A. S., Dearing, E., Daae Zachrisson, H., Hirsh-Pasek, K., & Lowe Vandell, D. (2021). High-quality early child care and education: The gift that lasts a lifetime. Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/articles/high-quality-early-child-care-and-education-the-gift-that-lasts-a-lifetime/
- McCoy, D. C., Yoshikawa, H., Ziol-Guest, K. M., Duncan, G. J., Schindler, H. S., Magnuson, K., Yang, R., Koepp, A., & Shonkoff, J. P. (2017). Impacts of Early Childhood Education on Medium- and Long-Term Educational Outcomes. Educational Researcher, 46(8), 474–487. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.3102/0013189X17737739
- Elaine A. Donoghue, MD; Dina Lieser, MD; Beth DelConte, MD; Elaine Donoghue, MD; Marian Earls, MD; Danette Glassy, MD; Alan Mendelsohn, MD; Terri McFadden, MD; Seth Scholer, MD; Jennifer Takagishi, MD; Douglas Vanderbilt, MD; P. Gail Williams, MD. (2017). Quality Early Education and Child Care from Birth to Kindergarten. THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS, 140(2). https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2017-1488
- DeHaney, F. L., Payton, C. T., & Washington, A. (2021). Quality includes removing bias from early childhood education environments. YC Young Children, 76(2), 12-20. https://www.jstor.org/stable/27095169.
- [Zero to Three]. (2017, May 22). How Can We Support Staff in Addressing Implicit Bias? One Program’s Approach [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G2fz1Ofj6PA
- Coogle, C. G., Lakey, E. R., Ottley, J. R., Brown, J. A., & Romano, M. K. (2021). Embedded Learning Opportunities for Children with and Without Disabilities. Young Children, 76(4), 8-15. https://www.jstor.org/stable/27095203
- Knight, V. F., Huber, H. B., Kuntz, E. M., Carter, E. W., & Juarez, A. P. (2019). Instructional Practices, Priorities, and Preparedness for Educating Students With Autism and Intellectual Disability. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 34(1), 3–14. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1088357618755694
- Kuntz, Emily M., and Erik W. Carter. “General Educators' Involvement in Interventions for Students With Intellectual Disability.” (2021).
- Kuntz, E. M., & Carter, E. W. (2021). Effects of a Collaborative Planning and Consultation Framework to Increase Participation of Students with Severe Disabilities in General Education Classes. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 46(1), 35–52. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1540796921992518
- [EITP Illinois]. (2015, March 11). Early Intervention and Child Care...Natural Partners in Natural Environments [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vMcTEch--Lc&list=PL7F9l-VZdRS_wTTwGX_3JBlhVxfKIUUZv
- Hart Barnett, J.E., & O’Shaughnessy, K. 2015. “Enhancing Collaboration Between Occupational Therapists and Early Childhood Educators Working with Children on the Autism Spectrum.” Early Childhood Education Journal 43: 467–472.
- McWilliam, R.A. 2011. “The Top 10 Mistakes in Early Intervention in Natural Environments – and the Solutions.” ZERO TO THREE 31 (4): 11–16.
- NPDCI (National Professional Development Center on Inclusion). 2009. Research Synthesis Points on Early Childhood Inclusion. Summary. Chapel Hill: NPDCI.
- Vakil, S., E. Welton, B. O’Connor, & L.S. Kline. 2009. “Inclusion Means Everyone! The Role of the Early Childhood Educator when Including Young Children with Autism in the Classroom.” Early Childhood Education Journal 36: 321–326.
- Woods, J.J., & D.P. Lindeman. 2008. “Gathering and Giving Information with Families.” Infants & Young Children 21 (4): 272–284.
- Yu, S. 2019. “Head Start Teachers’ Attitudes and Perceived Competence Toward Inclusion.” Journal of Early Intervention 41: 30–43.
- Horn, E., Lieber, J., Sandall, S., Schwartz, I. & Li, S. (2002;). Supporting young children’s IEP goals in inclusive settings through embedded learning opportunities. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 20, 208-223.
- Snyder, P., Hemmeter, M. L., McLean, M., Sandall, S., & McLaughlin, T. (2013). Embedded instruction to support early learning in response to intervention frameworks. In V. Buysse, E. S. Peisner-Feinber, & H. P. Ginsburg (Eds.), Handbook of response to intervention in early childhood (pp. 283-298). Paul H. Brookes Publishing.
- Grisham-Brown, J., Hemmeter, M. L., & Pretti-Frontczak, K. (2017). Blended practices for teaching young children in inclusive settings (2nd Ed.). Paul H. Brookes Publishing.
- Hall, A. H., Rutland, J. H., & Grisham-Brown, J. (2011). Family involvement in the assessment process. In J. Grisham-Brown & K. Pretti-Frontczak (Eds.), Assessing young children in inclusive settings: The blended practice approach (pp.37-60). Paul H. Brookes Publishing.
- Horn, E., Kang, J., Classen, A., Butera, G., Palmer, S., Lieber, J., Friesen, A., & Mihai, A. (2016). Role of universal design for learning and differentiation in inclusive preschools. In L. Meyer & T. Catalino (Eds), DEC recommended practices: Environment (DEC Recommended Practices Monograph Series No. 2) (pp. 51-66). Division of Early Childhood.
- Horn, E., Palmer, S., Butera, G., & Lieber, J. (2016). Six steps to inclusive preschool curriculum: A UDL-based framework for children’s school success. Paul H. Brookes Publishing.
- Robertson, J., Green, K., Alper, S., Schloss, P. J., & Kohler, F. (2003). Using a peer-mediated intervention to facilitate children’s participation in inclusive childcare activities. Education & Treatment of Children, 26, 182-197.
- Shepley, C., Lane, J. D., Grisham-Brown, J., Spriggs, A. D., & Winstead, O. (2018). Effects of a training package to increase teachers’ fidelity of naturalistic instructional procedures in inclusive preschool classrooms. Teacher Education and Special Education, 41(4), 321- 339.
- Xu, Y. (2019). Partnering with families of young children with disabilities in inclusive settings. In L. Lo & Y. Xu (Eds.), Family, school, and community partnerships for students with disabilities. Advancing inclusive and special education in the Asia-Pacific (pp. 3-15). Springer.
- Using Embedded Learning Opportunities in Inclusive Preschool Routines A DEC Learning Deck Webinar focusing on Embedded Learning Opportunities.
- CONNECT Modules Free instructional resources “for faculty and other professional development providers that focus on and respond to challenges faced each day by those working with young children and their families in a variety of learning environments and inclusive settings.”
- NAEYC Individuality and Inclusive Practices for Early Childhood "This cluster of Young Children articles takes up that call by digging deeper into the core consideration of individuality and guidelines related to inclusion and individualized teaching and learning, offering in-depth descriptions of approaches to meet each child where they are.”
- Indicators of High-Quality Inclusion A group of national partners designed these four sets of indicators to support state leaders, local administrators, and front-line personnel in the early care and education system, providing programs and services to children ages birth through five and their families.
- Initial Practice-Based Professional Preparation Standards for EI/ECSE (2020)
- Professional Standards and Competencies for Early Childhood Educators
- ECPC Cross-Disciplinary Competencies
Select a Category:
|*New* Tip sheet: Enhancing Family-Provider Partnerships During COVID-19||Enhancing Family-Provider Partnerships|
|Tips for Providers: Providing & Coordinating EI Remotely||Tips for Providers: What to say to Families|
|Tips for Providers: Providing & Coordinating EI Remotely (What will it look like?)||Tips for Providers: What will a Remote Visit Look Like?|
|Tips for Families: Receiving Remote EI Services||Tips for Families Flyer .pdf What is Remote EI
Consejos para Familias .pdf What is Remote EI? (Spanish)
|Tips for Families: How to prepare for a Remote EI Visit||Tips for Families: .pdf Preparing for the Visit
TConsejos para Familias: .pdf Preparing for the Visit (Spanish)
|ECPC Course Enhancement Modules||E-Learning Lessons, Practice Guides & Resources
|CONNECT Modules||CONNECT Modules and Courses|
|Virginia Early Intervention Professional Development Center||Framework for reflective questioning / The Coaching Quick Reference Guide - .pdf|
|Virginia Early Intervention Professional Development Center||Tools of Trade|
|OCALI (Ohio Center for Autism and Low Incidence Disabilities) (note: you must login but it is free)||Suite of Resources for Early Childhood Professionals|
|Public Consulting Group||Use of telehealth in early intervention (IDEA Part C)|
|Protecting Student Privacy
U.S. Department of Education
|Student Privacy 101|
|Edelman, L. (2020). Planning for the Use of Video Conferencing for Early Intervention Home Visits during the COVID-19 Pandemic||Planning for the Use of Video Conferencing for Early Intervention Home Visits during the COVID-19 Pandemic|
|CEC Hosted Webinar with Resources||Teaching Special Education Online During COVID-19|
|National Center for Hearing Assessment & Management Utah State University||Welcome to the Tele-Intervention Learning Courses|
|Lisa Dieker & Rebecca Hines UCF - Podcasts for Part B/619 Coordinators||Series of Podcasts: teaching online, inclusion, etc.|
|National Center for Pyramid Model Innovations - May Newsletter||Pyramid in the Time of COVID-19|